Słownik pojęć technicznych w branży Data Center (F-O) – część 2 z 3

Kontynuujemy prezentację pojęć technicznych używanych w branży Data Center. Poniższa lista przedstawia drugą część z ponad 320 definicji używanych w branży Data Center.

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Technical Dictionary in the Data Center Industry (F-O) – Part 2 of 3

We continue to present the technical concepts used in the Data Center industry. The list presents the second part of over 320 definitions used in the Data Center industry.

We encourage you to familiarize yourself with the previous posts:



We wish you a pleasant reading.

Facility Availability The characteristic uptime performance of one component of the critical IT infrastructure. A quantitative measure of the total uptime needed in a facility without regard to the level of quality required in the IT functions carried on during that uptime. As used in this manual, it applies to GM’s scheduled uptime. Facility Availability is expressed in terms of one of four Availability Tier Levels. This classification reflects the interaction between the level of criticality and the availability of operation time.
Failure Mode A system State resulting from an unanticipated system outage and typically an automatic system response to that failure.
Fan coil unit (FCU) A small terminal unit that is often composed of only a blower and a heating and/or cooling coil (heat exchanger), as is often used in hotels, condominiums, or apartments. One type of fan coil unit is a unit ventilator.
Fault Tolerant A concurrently maintainable and operable system where redundancy is not lost during failure or maintenance mode of operation. This is also known as a Tier 4 facility.
Fresh air intake (FAI) An opening through which outside air is drawn into the building. This may be to replace air in the building that has been exhausted by the ventilation system, or to provide fresh air for combustion of fuel.
Faraday Cage A metallic enclosure that is designed to prevent the entry or escape of electromagnetic fields. An ideal Faraday cage consists of an unbroken perfectly conducting Shell. This ideal cannot be achieved in practice, but can be approached.
Filters (HVAC) A particulate air filter is a device composed of fibrous materials which removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mold, and bacteria from the air. Effects of airborne contaminations on datacentre equipment can be broken into three main categories. Failure modes due to dust include: (ASHRAE 2009a): Chemical effects Two common Chemical failure modes are copper creep corrosion on Circuit boards and the corrosion of silver metallization in miniature surface mounted components. Dust settled on printed Circuit boards can lead to component corrosion and/or to the electrical short circuiting of closely spaced features. mechanical effects General effects include heat sink fouling, optical signal interference, increased friction, etc. These effects include obstruction of cooling airflow, interference with moving parts, abrasion, optical interference, interconnect interference, or deformation of surfaces (e.g., magnetic media) and other similar effects. electrical effects Electrical effects include changes in Circuit impedance, arcing, etc. It should be noted that the reduction of Circuit board feature sizes and the miniaturization of components, necessary to improve hardware performance, also makes the hardware more prone to attack by contamination in the data centre environment. These effects include impedance changes and electronic Circuit conductor bridging.
Fiber Management Hardware designed and manufactured for keeping fiber patch cords neat and orderly. Most termination frame manufacturers provide fiber management components designed to work in conjunction with their termination frames. Fiber management may also refer to other types of hardware for securing fiber optic cable to the building.
Fiber Optic See optical fiber.
Fire The presence of a flame.
Fire Detection The means of detecting the occurrence of heat, smoke or other particles or products of combustion.
Fire Protection The active means of detecting and suppressing fires occurring within the data processing facility.
Fire Suppression The means of extinguishing an active fire.
Flexibility The ability of a design to anticipate future changes in space, Communications, power density, or heat rejection — and to respond to these changes without affecting the mission of the critical IT functions.
Fresh air intake (FAI) An opening through which outside air is drawn into the building. This may be to replace air in the building that has been exhausted by the ventilation system, or to provide fresh air for combustion of fuel.
Functional Performance Test The full range of checks and tests carried out to determine whether all components, subsystems, systems, and interfaces between systems function in accordance with the contract documents.
FM200 Environmentally friendly fire suppression agent otherwise known as HFC-227ea. Effective fire suppression requires introducing a concentration of the HFC-227ea agent between 6.25% and 9% depending on the hazard being protected. Its NOAEL level for cardiac sensitization is 9%.
FTP Abbreviation for ‘Foil Twisted Pair’ in cabling terms and File Transfer Protocol in network terms
(G-l) Term Description
Grille A facing across a duet opening, usually rectangular is shape, containing multiple parallel slots through which air may be delivered or withdrawn from a ventilated space.
Ground A conducting connection, whether intentional or accidental, between an electrical Circuit (e.g., telecommunications) or equipment and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of earth.
Grounding The act of creating a ground.
Grounding Conductor A conductor used to connect the grounding electrode to the building’s main grounding bus bar.
Generator Diesel Generator, Generator Set, Genset or Gennie Terms used to describe the provision of an engine designed to provide electrical power in the event of mains power being unavailable. Engines for technology rooms are typical diesel powered, but can be petrol or gas turbine
Halon Fire suppression gas now banned by international treaty
Hardening Protection from physical forces, security breaches, and natural disasters.
Harmonie Distortion A measure of the degree to which the impedance of a UPS affects the shape of the output voltage waveform. Distortion is stated as a percentage and may refer to any single harmonies or to the total waveform, in which case it is referred to as „total harmonies distortion” (THD).
Heat Heat is simply a form of energy. It exists in all matter on earth, in varied quantities and intensities. Heat energy can be measured relative to any reference temperature, body or environment. The existence of undesirable temperatures (heat) above normal ambient temperatures in a Data centre environment.
Heat Exchanger A heat exchanger allows different fluids to transfer heat energy without mixing. It achieves this by keeping the flowing fluids separated by thin tubes or thin metal plates. Heat exchangers are commonly used in the place of condenser coils in water or glycol cooled air conditioning systems.
Heat load, heat loss, or heat gain Terms for the amount of heating (heat loss) or cooling (heat gain) needed to maintain desired temperatures and humidity’s in controlled air. Regardless of how well-insulated and sealed a building is, buildings gain heat from warm air or sunlight or lose heat to cold air and by radiation. Engineers use a heat load calculation to determine the HVAC needs of the space being cooled or heated.
Heat Transfer Heat transfer is the process of an object or fluid losing heat energy while another object or fluid gains heat energy. Heat energy airways flows from a higher temperature substance to a lower temperature substance. For example, a cold object placed in a hot room cannot drop in temperature it can only gain heat energy and rise in temperature. The amount of heat transferred can airways be measured over a period of time to establish a rate of heat transfer.
HEMP High-altitude Electromagnetic Pulse, or HEMP, is emanated from the detonation of a single nuclear warhead several kilometers out of the atmosphere. In the absence of proper shielding, it can destroy electronics vital to telecommunications and computing by generating a current that will overload highly sensitive integrated circuits.
High-Order Mode Transient Losses Losses in power caused by the attenuation of weakly-guided high-order modes of multimode optical fiber.
Horizontal Cabling 1) The cabling between and including the telecommunications outlet/connector and the horizontal cross-connect. 2) The cabling between and including the building automation system outlet or the first mechanical termination of the horizontal connection point and the horizontal cross-connect. 3) In a data centre, horizontal cabling is the cabling from the horizontal cross-connect (in the main distribution area or horizontal distribution area) to the outlet in the equipment distribution area or zone distribution area.
Horizontal Cross-Connect A cross-connect of horizontal cabling to other cabling, e.g., horizontal, backbone, equipment.
Horizontal Distribution Area A space in a Computer room where a horizontal cross-connect is located.
Hot Aisle Containment Because most IT equipment breathes front to rear. Hot aisle/cold aisle aligns the cabinets in rows around this concept, with the server exhausts of each row facing one another, becoming the hot aisle. Hot Aisle Containment immediately captures server exhaust air and restricts its entry to the rest of the data center. The exhaust air is destination depends on the containment configuration. There are two typical configurations: Room Type One version of hot aisle containment turns the hot aisle into its Containment own room. Once cabinets are aligned in the traditional hot aisle/cold aisle layout, the hot aisle is sealed with doors, sidewalls, and roofs. This solution requires, an In-Row air conditioner unit (CRAH) to draw the hot air and out of the hot aisle. This unit is usually quite compact and embedded within a row of enclosures. Within hot aisle containment, the In-Row air conditioner immediately captures exhaust air from the server cabinet, conditions it, and returns it to the hot aisle. The short distance ensures that the air conditioner and its cooling coil receive the exhaust air at its warmest point. With hot aisle/cold aisle, exhaust air has to travel varying distances to ACUs positioned throughout the perimeter of the room. Chimney Type This is a more traditional approach involving specialized Containment cabinets with a solid rear door and attachments for ductwork (also called a chimney) and a false ceiling. Attached to the rear of the server cabinets, these ducts catch the exhaust air off the servers and channel it into a false ceiling. The false ceiling serves as a plenum, delivering the hot exhaust air to a perimeter-mounted air conditioner (CRAC or CRAH), which may also extend, via ducts, to the ceiling level. The chimney version of hot aisle containment assures that the AC unit receives warmer air, but the hot air capture is not immediate. The exhaust air must move through the drop ceiling and into the intake of the room-based AC unit. Depending on the equipment used, this solution may or may not include fans to propel the air out of the cabinet and in to the false ceiling.
Hot Spot A temperature reading taken at the air in-take point of equipment mounted in a rack or cabinet in excess of 77°f (25°c).
Hot Aisle / Cold Aisle A rack enclosure based architecture in which parallel aisles of enclosures are arranged with rack fronts always facing rack fronts and rack rears always facing rack rears. This ensures separation between cooling air in the “cold” aisle entering the front of the racks, and warm exhaust air leaving the back of the racks into the “hot” aisle. Separation of cooling air and exhaust air results in higher cooling system efficiencies and the ability to cool higher power densities in the computing environment. See also Kyoto Cooling.
Human Events Man-made disasters including economic, general strike, terrorism (ecological, cyber, nuclear, biological, Chemical), sabotage, hostage situation, civil unrest, enemy attack, arson, mass hysteria, special events.
Identifier An item of information that links a specific element of the telecommunications infrastructure with its corresponding record.
Impact Of Downtime Specified as local, regional, or global.
Incipient Products Of Combustion Particles emitted from materials developing inherently high heat but from which no smoke is yet visible.
Inergen An inert gas used in fire suppression systems, which consists of nitrogen (52%), argon (40%) and carbon dioxide (8%). Inergen works to deplete oxygen levels to as Iow as 12.5% effectively reducing combustion (occurs at 15%) or the ability to sustain a flame. It is safe enough to sustain human life but with some constraints due to Iow oxygen !levels and increased C02 (3%) versus normal air at 1% C02.
Infrastructure (Telecommunications) A collection of those telecommunication components, excluding equipment, that together provides the basic support for the distribution of all information within a building or campus.
Input Source Transfer The function of and the location in the electrical system where the utility -generator transfer occurs.
Insertion Loss The signal loss resulting from the insertion of a component, or link, or channel, between a transmitter and receiver (often referred to as attenuation).
Inside Plant (ISP) Communications system inside a building (wire, fiber, coaxial cable, equipment and racks, information outlets, etc.).
Interconnection A connection scheme that employs connecting hardware for the direct connection of a cable to another cable without a patch cord or jumper.
Intermediate Cross-Connect A cross-connect between first level and second level backbone cabling.
inverter An inverter is an electrical device that converts direct current (DC) from sources such as batteries, solar panels, or fuel cells to alternating current (AC); the resulting AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits. The inverter performs the opposite function of a rectifier.
Isolation A design strategy that mitigates the risk of damage to some components in a facility. In IT facilities, this strategy typically involves the placement of electrical distribution equipment in a separate room.
IEC Abbreviation for ‘Independent Electrical Contractors’ – Standards body
IEE Abbreviation for ‘Institute of Electrical Engineers’. Issue electrical regulations (Current issue in force 16th edition)
IEEE Abbreviation for ‘Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers’. (Pronounced as “EYE triple E) The IEEE is a professional society serving the public interest and members in electrical, electronic, Computer and other technologies
IPMI Intelligent Platform Management Interface – Baseboard Management available on a wide range of Servers as standard (e.g. Dell). Provides monitoring capability and ability to remotely power cycle the equipment.
ISO Abbreviation for ‘International Standards Organization’
IVR (interactive Voice Response) A system that enables the customer to complete their transactions via telephone without having to speak directly to a call centre advisor
Jumper 1) An assembly of twisted-pairs without connectors, used to join telecommunications circuits/links at the cross-connect. 2) A length of optical fiber cable with a connector plug on each end.
Kilo Newton Kilo Newton; the metric unit of pressure/load often used to indicate the floor loading capabilities. Some countries might indicate this in other units such as kPa (Kilo Pascal), Lbs/psf (pound per square feet) etc.
KVM Abbreviation for Keyboard, Video Mouse
Kyoto Cooling Kyoto Cooling (name adopted from the Kyoto Protocol) utilizes outside air temperatures as the cooling source for the data centre, during hours when the outside temperature is less than the data centre supply air temperature requirement. This provides ‘free cooling’, except for the nominal expense of running a small number of high efficiency air movers and turning the “passive” heat exchanger. The hot and cold air isolation technology presents a way to effectively cool cabinet heat loads in excess of 20 kW, while at the same time enabling the data centre operator to enjoy the economic (and “green”) benefits of Kyoto Cooling.
Label A piece of paper, cloth or other material that is fastened to something and gives predefined information about it. Describes its identity, path, location or other important information about the product or material.
Ladder rack A cable tray with side stringers and cross members, resembling a ladder, which may support cable either horizontally or vertically.
LAN Local area network.
Layering The use of many layers of barriers, other countermeasures, or a mixture of both, used to provide the maximum level of deterrence and delay for physical security.
LCD Abbreviation for ‘Liquid Crystal Display’
LEED (Green Building System) The Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. Green Building Rating System, developed by the U.S in 1998. Green Building Council (USGBC) provides a suite of standards for environmentally sustainable construction. It is similar in many respect to BREEAM (UK) and Green Star (Australia) Green Building standards.
Lightning Arrester See Arrester.
Line Conditioner See Power Conditioner
Link A transmission path between two points, not including terminal equipment, work area cables, and equipment cables.
Linkage A connection between a record and d an identifier or between records.
Load Bank Consists of groups of resistive elements, fans and Controls. The load bank is an electrical load that is connected to ups systems or generators in load test situations.
Loose Tube Fibre Fibre cable containing several tubes secured within an outer jacket. Each tube can contain multiple fire cores
Louvers Blades, sometimes adjustable, placed in ducts or duet entries to control the volume of air flow. The term may also refer to blades in a rectangular frame placed in doors or walls to permit the movement of air.
LSOH or LSZH Abbreviation for Low Smoke Zero Halogen
MCB Circuit breakers are electrical switching devices for protecting and controlling the electricity supply to respective electrical circuits. Circuit breakers protect electrical circuitry from damage due to an overcurrent condition, such as an overload condition or a relatively high level short Circuit or fault condition. Miniature Circuit Breakers may be utilized in conjunction with arc fault and/or ground fault trip mechanisms. Some miniature Circuit breakers include a ground fault detection system that is operatively connected with the operating mechanism to open the contacts in the event of a line-to-ground fault or a neutral-to-ground fault. The purpose of the ground fault detector in residential Circuit breakers is to protect persons from electrical shocks and the accepted !level for tripping is 5 ma of ground fault current
MCCB Molded Case Circuit Breakers for light to medium industrial and commercial applications have a case molded from an electrically insulative resin. Such Circuit breakers can be single pole or multi-pole. One pole Circuit breakers of this type are typically three quarters to an inch thick. Two pole Circuit breakers of this type have side-by-side compartments for the poles making them proportionally thicker, but still relatively thin. For applications where ground fault protection is desired, the ground fault circuitry is housed in one compartment and the mechanical pole in an adjacent compartment. A load terminal is provided in such a miniature molded case Circuit breaker by a rigid conductor which extends from the separable contacts within the housing to a terminal recess molded in the outer surface of the housing.
Main Cross-Connect A cross-connect for first level backbone cables, entrance cables, and equipment cables.
Main Distribution Area The space in a Computer room where the main cross-connect is located.
Maintainability The ability to perform routine maintenance on any component of a system without affecting the mission or processes of the critical IT functions.
Maintenance Mode A system State resulting from an anticipated system outage or routine maintenance activity and typically a manual system response to that activity.
Makeup air unit (MAU) or PAU -Primary Air Unit An air handler that conditions 100% outside air. MAUs / PAUs are typically used in industrial or commercial settings, or in „once-through” (blower sections that only blow air one-way into the building), „Iow flow” (air handling systems that blow air at a Iow flow rate of 1-5 bar of pressure), or „primary-secondary” (air handling systems that have an air handler or rooftop unit connected to an add-on makeup unit or hood) commercial HVAC systems. 1 bar = 100 Kpa or approx. 15 psi.
Management Information Base Within SNMP, defines objects and attributes to be managed.
Mechanical Room An enclosed space serving the needs of mechanical building systems.
Media (Telecomms) Wire, cable, or conductors used for telecommunications.
Modular Jack A female telecommunications connector that may be keyed or unkeyed and may have 6 or 8 contact positions, but not all the positions need to be equipped with jack contacts.
MPOE Minimum Point Of Entry, Utility Partnerships/Alternate Carrier, located within the MDF.
Multimode Optical Fiber An optical fiber that carries many paths of light with an inner core diameter of 50pm or 62.5pm
Multipair Cable A cable having more than four pairs.
Natural Barrier Any object of nature that impedes or prevents access, including mountains, bodies of water, deserts, swamps, etc.
Natural Events Natural disasters including drought, fire, avalanche, snow/ice/hail, tsunami, windstorm/tropical storm, hurricane/typhoon/cyclone, biological, extreme heat/cold, flood/wind-driven water, earthquake/land-shift, volcanic eruption, tornado, landslide/mudslide, dust/sand storm, lightning storm.
NOAEL No observable adverse effect level – denotes the level of exposure of an organism, found by experiment or observation, at which there is no biologically or statistically significant (e.g. alteration of morphology, functional capacity, growth, development or life span) increase in the frequency or severity of any adverse effects in the exposed population when compared to its appropriate control. In toxicology it is specifically the highest tested dose or concentration of a substance (i.e. a Chemical) or agent (e.g. radiation); at which no such adverse effect is found in exposed test organisms where higher doses or concentrations resulted in an adverse effect. This level may be used in the process of establishing a dose-response relationship, a fundamental step in most risk assessment methodologies. See FM200
Normal Mode The steady-state system configuration while under load.
Newton Newton -SI unit of force. A ‘newton’ is defined as the amount of force needed to move an object of 1 kg so that it accelerates at 1 metre per second per second. It is also used as a unit of weight. The weight of a medium size (100 g/3 oz.) apple is one newton
Network Operations centre(NOC) A centre which is specifically designed to monitor and manage resources, such as networks and IT systems. Often using complex technology tools, it is used to keep an eye on the resource from moment to moment alerting control room staff of any issues whether actual or potential
.Open Transition A change or State or transfer where the electrical. Circuit connection is not maintained during the transfer. This is also known as “break before make”.
Operational Classification Defined for a given facility by assigning one of four classifications, according to the amount of time that will be available in the facility for testing and maintenance.
Optical Fiber Any filament made of dielectric materials that guides light.
Optical Fiber Cable An assembly consisting of one or more optical fibers.
Outside Plant (OSP) Communications system outside of the buildings (typically underground conduit and vaults, exterior/underground, aerial, and buried rated wire and cable. etc.).
Overall Availability Range Defined by combining a given facility’s availability requirement „while running” with the operational classification defined for the facility.
Operations Bridge A room or centre dedicated to the management and control of IT environments
Operations centre A centre which is specifically designed to monitor and manage resources. such as networks, IT systems or industrial processes. Often using complex technology tools. it is used to keep an eye on the resource from moment to moment alerting control room staff of any issues whether actual or potential
OTDR Abbreviation for ‘Optical Time Domain Reflectometer’, used to check optical fibre cabling



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